This paper firstly summarizes the transition of tea plantations, focusing on the treatment of laborers’ dwelling and environment (line house) based on existing studies. Next, analyze the “design guidelines” (Planters Manual) that became the prototype of the standard plan for line houses. In addition, grasp the current situation of the residence of the line houses and compare it with the prototype. Finally, this paper explores mainly the physical aspect of the line houses, the Tamil people who have faced the situation at that time while being at the mercy of complicated history, and the image of residence of the line houses that have continued with them.
Architectural practitioners have actively proposed a share as a way to enrich their dwelling. However, now that the new-coronavirus (COVID-19) sickness has made us aware that the share is two sides of the same coin with the risk of infection, we can still see what people want from the share. At this symposium, we first reconsider the meaning of various shares being tried in the field of architecture. Then, we anthropologically ask what share is, and draw out the future of whether share continues to promote the disparity in housing, or how the practice of housing can play a role in correcting the disparity.
Telework has spread rapidly with the spread of the new coronavirus infection. While the spread of telework has revealed various merits, it also highlights issues related to living space. In the future, as telework becomes more familiar, a living environment that integrates work and housing will be required, and the degree of freedom in choosing a place of residence may increase. For the era of WITH / AFTER Corona, we will think about how to live, work, enjoy and live while teleworking in Osaka, and think about Osaka as a city to live with.
This exhibition is a collaboration between KYOTOGRAPHIE and The Kyoto City Landscape and Town Planning Center, who are actively engaged in the restoration and preservation of Kyomachiya. The exhibition consists of interview footage and daily life scenes of the various people connected to Kyomachiya, including residents, craftsmen, architects, researchers, entrepreneurs, and supporters. It presents a series of photos that share the detail and characteristics of the Kyomachiya. The purpose of this exhibition is to envision the future of Kyomachiya.
This paper analyzed characters of house and life reconstruction behavior by residents in Tamaura-West district which is the large-scale group resettlement site rapidly completed in the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. It is clarified that the household separation is advanced. However, the drastic change is mitigated with adjustment of way of living by the residents themselves. It is caused to characters of plan of the district (rapid reconstruction, mixture of house types, maintenance of previous neighborhood etc.). On the other hand, restriction by customs about family and restoration institution sometimes have negative affect on the activeness of the residents.
The area called “dense urban area” in urban planning retains the architecture and space from the modern age, and conveys the life culture of the city to the present day with the people living there. However, in recent years, dense urban areas are often regarded as targets for renewal due to their vulnerability to disasters. In Yurin school districts, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto City, members of the “Machi-zukuri Committee”, which is composed mainly of residents, investigate the distribution of resources such as kyo-machiya, alleys, Jizo-bon and the location of evacuation facilities/equipment, and visualized them as community disaster mitigation map. The map is the first step to promote a community development that balances the “life culture” and “disaster safety” of the often conflicting dense urban areas. In addition to the paper version of the map, it can be viewed and edited on the network by linking with stlory (the online sharing platform for the original map), which is also used in community disaster mitigation training.
The coronavirus (COVID-19) problem is a complex problem that spans a wide range of fields including medicine (epidemiology, public health), risk science, informatics, sociology, history, urban planning, and architecture. We will consider the living environment in an emergency from the perspective of “if a disaster occurs under the circumstances of the spread of new corona infection”, and introduce related information resources and literature. I think it is important to acquire the attitude and method to continue to think about how to “rightly fear” the risks around us and “do our best” to deal with them. In that sense, what is essentially important may be the same as it was before the new Corona. I hope everyone will be a glove hint to face the current situation.
“What is the relationship between the disaster prevention map and Jizo’s shrine?”
This is a simple question from a participant, local residents when I conducted a workshop in an area I am currently helping disaster prevention community planning. From the viewpoint of the theme of this special feature, Accomodating, it is necessary to watch the city not only during normal times but also during emergencies. On the other hand, when we think about emergencies, you also need to use your imagination about the situation of the city during normal times. Such a perspective between normal times and emergency times is indispensable for creating a truly disaster-resistant local society. However, it is often that the link between normal and emergency, which was natural for me, is not for others. What I introduced at the beginning was a word from the inhabitants who made this fact noticeable to me. Let’s look at the theme given to me in this article, “Urban Accomodation Focused on Emergencies.”
Social Urbanism -Knowledge exchange meeting between Latin America and Japan
We will hold “Social Urbanism-Knowledge exchange meeting between Latin America and Japan” at 18:00 -21:00 on February 7 in Kyoto. We Invite an architect Alejandro Echeverri, who is known for urban renewal in Medellin, once called the “World’s Most Dangerous City”. Architects and researchers who practice Social Urbanism at domestic and abroad from the Japanese side will also share knowledge in South America and Japan. Although the capacity is limited, it is an open meeting, so if you are interested please join us!
“Jizo-Bon” is a precious event where multi-generation of cho-community exchange each other. In Kyoto, there are areas where Jizo-Bon continues to be devised, such as by collaborating with welfare facilities and university students to address issues such as a reduction in the number of players and participants. Let’s learn about these cases, exchange opinions among participants, and join together to give tips on community revitalization, such as how to increase the number of players.
Although Vietnam adopted the Doi Moi policy in 1986 and started working on cooperation with the international community, fieldwork by Western researchers was still rare. In 1994, a comprehensive survey of the townscape of Hoi An’s old town in central Vietnam was conducted. Based on this experience, the field has been expanded to other cities in Vietnam and other countries, but fieldwork in Hoi An continues every year. The possibility of fieldwork is considered from the development of research and field changes due to continued involvement in the field for over 25 years.
This paper analyzed how Jizo-Bon, small-scale religious festivals held widely in Kyoto-city, contributes for improving resilience of “cho”, the basic communities in the central urban area of Kyoto. We clarified that Jizo-Bon is one of important opportunities for inhabitants to be involved in “cho” except for “cho-nai-kai”, community management associations. The results show Jizo-Bon 1. Loads for management are distributed to the extent that each inhabitant can bear them. 2. Meaning of Jizo-Bon can be flexibly renewed corresponding with each inhabitant’s purpose or motivation for joining.
This paper examined the factors affecting residents’ acceptance of the support based on the action research on support for improvement of temporary house and environment after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Some residents accept because they understood the problems and technology with their knowledge or experience. However, other many residents couldn’t understand them enough and depend their decision on “trust” to others. When they build trust, their expectation for ability of supporters as experts is lower than attitude of supporters as volunteers and residents understand supports better after acceptance of them and are more actively involved through their continuous involvement.
We have conducted an action research on improvement of residential environment in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 through the case of Motoyoshi, Kesennuma-city. This paper tried to clarify the factors why we could realize the support for residents of temporary housing although we had only limited resource and weak relationship with local actors or other supporters before the disaster. We analyzed realization process of our support from the view of “indirect support” (support for supporters) and the results are shown as follows. 1. “Indirect support” which doesn’t fix the relationship between supplier and recipient of support is efficient. The support is realized by the relationships which are created among supporters or between supporters and residents after the disasters. 2. Improvement planning of residential environment based on appropriate technology (preparation for hot and cold climate) is important. The planning should be acceptable for not only individual residents but for residents’ community and other supporters.
Social mobility and uncertainty surrounding local communities are increasing in the contemporary societies. “Resettlement society” means societies with social support for people who lost stable dwelling as unexpected reasons and intend to restore their stable conditions. Toward realization of the resettlement society, it is necessary to promote research and practice on dwelling design exploring equilibrium points beyond social conflicts and housing policy considering locality and dynamics of housing system.
Sri Lanka is world-famous for Ceylon tea, the export amount of which was used to be the first of the world. However, the people who support the tea as labor are not well-known to the world. They are Tamil people, immigrants from South India, who are neither British people nor Sri Lankan people. The aim of this project is to revitalize a village, Bawlana village, where Tamil people have been living for 130 years, through support from architecture because they have been marginalized and poor after tea plantation here got closed about 30 years ago. We have regenerated a row house called “line house” in Bawlana. Although 1/3 of it used to be lost before the construction, it becomes a base of local tourism the attractive points of which are the history, the culture and the nature of Bawlana. Line houses in Bawlana consist of characteristic elements which are derived from 3 countries related to tea plantation. They are steel frames made in Britain 130 years ago, local granite and veranda space often seen in houses of Sri Lanka, and floor covered with cowpat closely connected with a ceremony of Hinduism from India. We planed the regeneration by two methods, namely, restoring parts of the original house and recomposing the characteristic elements so that the composition of it becomes seen more clearly. Line houses in the former tea plantation area are often regarded as “negative heritage” in Sri Lanka. However, if the history of Bawlana and Tamil’s life and culture are appraised by various viewpoints, it will be power of drawing the future of Bawlana. We believe that this regeneration will make a chance of it and this regenerated line house will be a place where a new history of Bawlana will be born.
Rural and urban sustainability governance (Multilevel Environmental Governance for Sustainable Development),United Nations University Press, 2014
The rural and urban communities have a distinct structure, function and dynamism, which provide us with livelihood and define our lives through our various daily activities. Circumstances surrounding the rural and urban communities are increasingly changing, such as with the rapid development towards globalization, and consequently the number of challenges needing solutions seems to be ever on the increase.
The focus of this book is on the rural and urban environments, and the wide-ranging representations of various players’ interacting activities that preserve or destroy these environments. The key issues contemporary to the rural and urban communities include appropriate overall environmental governance involving collaboration and competition among different actors, preservation or creation of a rich and lively living environment, and a search for ways to ensure the inheritance of our greatest assets for following generations.
This book attempts to elucidate the following issues: how we may use rural and urban sustainability as beacons for taking relevant and necessary policy measures and for community activities, and how to further ameliorate such measures and activities. The question of rural and urban sustainability is both specific and rich in context, and offers excellent cases for extracting the essence of multi-layered environmental governance. This volume presents current key academic findings, while also considering interactions between humans and nature, such as local resource management through the commons, and rural–urban interdependence.
In order to regenerate a housing complex, it is general situation that the project is driven by private developers. However, in the case of regeneration in urban area, cooperation between regeneration and community management is more important compared with regeneration in suburban area. This paper intends to find possibilities of “Machizukuri company” in regeneration of “Horikawa Housing Complex” which is the oldest RC housing complex with shops and dwellings in Japan. We analyzed discussion in “the Committee of Horikawa Machizukuri Company” which is composed by members from various speciality and background and interviewed the members about their sense of values and possible scheme to realize Machizukuri Company. As a result, we classiﬁ ed “Machizukuri company” to 4 types by the roles (driver or coordinator) and initiatives (private sector driven or citizen driven). We also pointed out the appropriate schemes realizing each of the types by ownership of land and buildings and relationships between Machizukuri Company and administrative, private developers, the residents and citizen.
This study explored support method for victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 based on experience of support activity for improvement of housing environment in temporary houses and examined reasons which realized the activity despite of limited resources. 1) Relationships of “support for supporters” was created based on sharing aid information among various support actors in the process of exploring correspondence to problems which cannot be solved by each actors. 2) “Trust” for others (supporters/other residents) are fostered and utilized in the process of decision-making under the uncertain situation.
This paper examined actual condition of management of Jizo-bon in the central area of Kyoto-city and analyzed component of participants of Jizo-bon. As the result, we clarified people (ex. apartment residents) who tend to be unfamiliar with community activities also join in Jizo-bon. This result means that Jizo-bon play a role in the creation of a resilient community in terms of improving the “diversity” of community members which is one of the basic characteristics of resilient communities. In addition, we considered about the reason why Jizo-bon play a rore described as above. We pointed out that Jizo-bon has “flexibility” from view of selectivity of events, number of participants and place corresponded to the situation of each communities. These results suggest that community resources like Jizo-bon which has experienced change in the long time and succeeded as “the core” of community is meaningful in local community management in the era of uncertainty.
This paper analyzed effect of Micro Credit in Resettlement Site with research of NGO staff and residents who belong to Micro Credit group. The results are as follows. (1) Micro Credit has economic effect in terms of life reconstruction through loan supply for economic activities in Resettlement Site where economic activities are difficult due to geographical and spatial features of Resettlement Site. (2) Micro Credit has social effect in terms of community formation through Micro Credit activity and re-organization of household relationships in Resettlement Site. NGO staff and residents organized Micro Credit group by using Neighborhood relationship and Blood relationship which were succeeded from previous settlement. And they also created new relationships which are across these existing relationships. (3) These results show possibility of Micro Credit as a method for sustainable residence in resettlement site design after natural disasters.
Masahiro Maeda et.al : The effect of micro credit on life restoration and community formation in resettlement households affected by the tsunami
This paper analyzed the effect of micro credits in resettlement sites from the perspectives of the NGO staff and residents who participated in micro credit groups. The results are listed below. (i) Micro credits have economic effects for reconstructing life by providing loans for economic activities in resettlement sites in which economic activities are difficult due to the geographical and spatial features. (ii) Micro credits have social effects on community formations through micro credit activity and reorganizing household relationships in resettlement sites. NGO staff and residents organized micro credit groups through neighborhood and family/relative relationships, which succeeded from a previous settlement. Moreover, they created new relationships in addition to these existing relationships. (iii) These results show that micro credits may be a method for sustainable residence in resettlement sites that arise after natural disasters.