Towards Research on Community Design as a Philosophy of Practice (2023)

実践哲学としてのコミュニティ・デザイン論研究」を目指して

 同志社大学大学院授業「コミュニティ・デザイン論研究」(同志社大学総合政策科学研究科+大阪ガスネットワークエネルギー・文化研究所)で培ってきた関係性を活かし、「Why?制度」「How?計画」「What?文化」「Who/Whom?共生」の4つのフレームを設け、コミュニティ・デザイン論を掘り下げていくワーキングを実施。各フレームごとに、まず問題提起として各主体のライフヒストリーを軸にテーマの変遷と基層をレビューし、異世代・異分野から新たな問いを投げかけ、対話を通して本質に迫ることを目指す。複眼的なアプローチによって、今、揺れる社会の中で、社会システムと生き方の問い直しの糧となる“実践哲学”につながるコミュニティ・デザイン論をともに描き出し共有する。

3rd フレーム「What?文化」
・前田昌弘「文化がせめぎ合う場としてまちづくりを記述する」,実践哲学としての「コミュニティ・デザイン論研究」を目指して>,その9,2023年7月29日

・川中大輔×前田昌弘×弘本由香里「対話で深めるコミュニティ・デザインと「文化」」,実践哲学としての「コミュニティ・デザイン論研究」を目指して,その8,2023年7月29日

The housing “ladder” in slum resettlement project(2023)

Acceptance and transformation of the housing “ladder” in slum resettlement projects in Colombo, Sri Lanka(Japan Architectural Review)

This study focuses on the Sustainable Township Development Programme, a slum resettlement project that represents a recent housing policy shift in Sri Lanka. Through the actual housing improvement activities of the residents of Sahaspura, a resettlement housing complex, and the slum residents in the surrounding area, the response of the beneficiaries to the housing “ladder” was clarified. Policy makers and planners intended to merge slum dwellers into the formal housing market through the provision of “ladders,” a set of regular ownership and dwelling units in Sahaspura. However, residents have responded in a variety of ways, including house extensions and renovations and informal housing transactions according to their daily needs.

Opening Dwellings to the city by interacting with the environment(2021)

環境と協同し,住まいを開く

The city, as an accumulation of artifacts, has been endowed with a variety of meanings and values derived from the activities of the people who pass through it. Especially in a city with such a long history as Kyoto, the majority of the artificial environment surrounding our lives was created in the past by someone other than ourselves. Therefore, the meaning and value of the artificial environment is layered and laminated.
However, in today’s society, we feel that the distance between people and their environment is becoming more and more distant in exchange for the increased convenience and comfort that comes with modernisation. If this is the case, how can we approach the meaning and value of the environment again, and regain a relationship that allows us to “interact” (=cooperate) with the environment, including non-human (objects)?

Restoration of Communality in the Disaster Public Housings with Common Spaces (2021)

コモンをもつ接地型集合住宅における共同性の回復に関する研究―東日本大震災の災害公営住宅を主な対象として―

Among the terraced-type disaster public housing in the three prefectures affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, we selected the housing complex that adopted the hybrid access, and show the actual situation of the recovery of the commonality of the inhabitants. We focused on the reflexivity that lifestyle affects the environment after reconstruction. We confirmed that the common space and the buffer space inside and outside the house are the keys to meet the needs of the inhabitants who want to interact while maintaining a certain sense of distance. In order for the introduction of the common space to function, we pointed out that in addition to the design and arrangement of the buffer space, it is important to stabilize the way of living by the arrangement and circulation of the space inside the house.

People and Land to Rearrange the “Housing Ladder” :through the case of a slum resettlement project in Sri Lanka(2021)

住まいの「梯子」を組み替える人びとと土地の関わり-スリランカのスラム再定住事業を通じて

This paper focuses on the Sustainable Township Development Program (STP), an urban regeneration project that has been underway since the late 1990s in Colombo, Sri Lanka’s largest city, to examine how the relationship between people resettled from slums and the land is changing. In this paper, we focus on the link between people’s practices and the processes of “purification” and “translation” in modernization, as proposed by anthropologist Bruno Latour. Specifically, we will depict how people, confronted with the “ladder” of housing (legal land ownership, high-rise housing units) as a means of “purification”, reconfigure their relationships, including their relation to the land, as they try to adapt to their environment while being at the mercy of changing circumstances.

Housing in Emergency and Future of City: beyond the COVID-19 disaster (2020)

非常時の住環境、これからの都市:新型コロナウイルス禍(COVID-19)を踏まえて

*この文章は京都府立大学生命環境学部2020年度前期講義「建築防災・安全計画」の講義資料として作成したものです。

The coronavirus (COVID-19) problem is a complex problem that spans a wide range of fields including medicine (epidemiology, public health), risk science, informatics, sociology, history, urban planning, and architecture. We will consider the living environment in an emergency from the perspective of “if a disaster occurs under the circumstances of the spread of new corona infection”, and introduce related information resources and literature. I think it is important to acquire the attitude and method to continue to think about how to “rightly fear” the risks around us and “do our best” to deal with them. In that sense, what is essentially important may be the same as it was before the new Corona. I hope everyone will be a glove hint to face the current situation.

A STUDY ON HOUSE AND LIFE RESTORATION WITH HOUSEHOLD SEPARATION AND REORGANIZATION IN GROUP RESETTLEMENT (2020)

集団移転における世帯分離・再編を伴う住宅・生活再建に関する研究:東日本大震災における宮城県岩沼市玉浦西地区を事例として

This paper analyzed characters of house and life reconstruction behavior by residents in Tamaura-West district which is the large-scale group resettlement site rapidly completed in the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. It is clarified that the household separation is advanced. However, the drastic change is mitigated with adjustment of way of living by the residents themselves. It is caused to characters of plan of the district (rapid reconstruction, mixture of house types, maintenance of previous neighborhood etc.). On the other hand, restriction by customs about family and restoration institution sometimes have negative affect on the activeness of the residents.

Issues and challenges in resettlement after a disaster: Who am I to decide my place of residence?(2020)

災害後の再定住における論点と課題:私の住まいを選ぶのは私なのか?,日本建築学会 災害からの住まいの復興に関する共有知構築[若手奨励]特別研究委員会:ポスト東日本大震災の住まい復興と共有知構築ー新しい計画論をめざして,2020年3月

東北地方三陸沿岸は豊かな自然資源に恵まれ、過去の津波被害のたびに自然資源を基盤として復興を遂げてきた。森や海といった生態環境の場合、めざすべき安定状態は一義的に決定される。すなわち、「自己の維持」という規範のもと生態環境は均衡に至る。一方で、社会環境の場合、生態環境とは異なり、何が安定的な状態であるか自明ではない。それゆえに社会環境は本来的に不安定である。近年における産業構造の転換や人口減少を背景として東北地方の社会環境は不安定さをさらに増している。
もちろん、人間も生物、生態環境の一部である以上、自己の維持(=健康)という規範は存在する。しかし、人間と環境の間には生物と環境との間以上の関わりが存在する。それは、倫理的であること、すなわち善し悪しの区別を持ち、規範に従って行動し、環境との間で「選択」が生じる、ということである。したがって、再定住とは「選択」の問題であると言うことができる。本稿では、災害後の再定住について、「選択」、「均衡」といったキーワードを通じて、論点・課題を整理する。また、東日本大震災における再定住に対する支援のあり方について考察し、人とその環境のあいだの関係的性質に着目した支援の必要性を示す。

Community Development in terms from Accommodation in Emergency City(2020)

「非常時」の都市収容とまちづくり

“What is the relationship between the disaster prevention map and Jizo’s shrine?”
This is a simple question from a participant, local residents when I conducted a workshop in an area I am currently helping disaster prevention community planning. From the viewpoint of the theme of this special feature, Accomodating, it is necessary to watch the city not only during normal times but also during emergencies. On the other hand, when we think about emergencies, you also need to use your imagination about the situation of the city during normal times. Such a perspective between normal times and emergency times is indispensable for creating a truly disaster-resistant local society. However, it is often that the link between normal and emergency, which was natural for me, is not for others. What I introduced at the beginning was a word from the inhabitants who made this fact noticeable to me. Let’s look at the theme given to me in this article, “Urban Accomodation Focused on Emergencies.”

The Life and Homes of Tamil People in the Former Tea Plantation(2020)

旧紅茶プランテーション農園に生きるタミルの人々と住まい:労働者長屋の成立と物理的実態について

This paper firstly summarizes the transition of tea plantations, focusing on the treatment of laborers’ dwelling and environment (line house) based on existing studies. Next, analyze the “design guidelines” (Planters Manual) that became the prototype of the standard plan for line houses. In addition, grasp the current situation of the residence of the line houses and compare it with the prototype. Finally, this paper explores mainly the physical aspect of the line houses, the Tamil people who have faced the situation at that time while being at the mercy of complicated history, and the image of residence of the line houses that have continued with them.

Redundancy of Relationships among Inhabitants of “Cho” Community in Terms of Involvement to Jizo-Bon Management(2019)

前田昌弘 他:地蔵盆運営への関与からみた町内住民間の関係の冗長性 -レジリエントなコミュニティ形成に果たす地蔵盆の役割に関する研究 その2 -

This paper analyzed how Jizo-Bon, small-scale religious festivals held widely in Kyoto-city, contributes for improving resilience of “cho”, the basic communities in the central urban area of Kyoto. We clarified that Jizo-Bon is one of important opportunities for inhabitants to be involved in “cho” except for “cho-nai-kai”, community management associations. The results show Jizo-Bon 1. Loads for management are distributed to the extent that each inhabitant can bear them. 2. Meaning of Jizo-Bon can be flexibly renewed corresponding with each inhabitant’s purpose or motivation for joining.

Research and Practice on Housing and Community Planning toward Resettlement Societies(2018)

前田昌弘:再定住社会のデザインにむけた住宅・地域計画の研究と実践

Social mobility and uncertainty surrounding local communities are increasing in the contemporary societies. “Resettlement society” means societies with social support for people who lost stable dwelling as unexpected reasons and intend to restore their stable conditions. Toward realization of the resettlement society, it is necessary to promote research and practice on dwelling design exploring equilibrium points beyond social conflicts and housing policy considering locality and dynamics of housing system.

The Factors Affecting Acceptance of the Supports by the Residents of Temporary Houses in Terms of “Trust” to Others(2018)

前田昌弘 他:他者への“信頼”からみた仮設住宅居住者による支援の受け入れ要因 -東日本大震災における仮設住宅の住環境改善支援に関する実践的研究その2 -

This paper examined the factors affecting residents’ acceptance of the support based on the action research on support for improvement of temporary house and environment after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. Some residents accept because they understood the problems and technology with their knowledge or experience. However, other many residents couldn’t understand them enough and depend their decision on “trust” to others. When they build trust, their expectation for ability of supporters as experts is lower than attitude of supporters as volunteers and residents understand supports better after acceptance of them and are more actively involved through their continuous involvement.

[Translated Paper] The Effects of Microcredit on Resettlement after Tsunami Disasters(2018)

Masahiro Maeda et.al : The effect of micro credit on life restoration and community formation in resettlement households affected by the tsunami

This paper analyzed the effect of micro credits in resettlement sites from the perspectives of the NGO staff and residents who participated in micro credit groups. The results are listed below. (i) Micro credits have economic effects for reconstructing life by providing loans for economic activities in resettlement sites in which economic activities are difficult due to the geographical and spatial features. (ii) Micro credits have social effects on community formations through micro credit activity and reorganizing household relationships in resettlement sites. NGO staff and residents organized micro credit groups through neighborhood and family/relative relationships, which succeeded from a previous settlement. Moreover, they created new relationships in addition to these existing relationships. (iii) These results show that micro credits may be a method for sustainable residence in resettlement sites that arise after natural disasters.

The Roles of Jizou-bon toward Building Resilient Communities(2015)

前田昌弘 他 : 京都市都心部における地蔵盆の運営実態と参加者の多様性 – レジリエントなコミュニティ形成に果たす地蔵盆の役割に関する研究 –

This paper examined actual condition of management of Jizo-bon in the central area of Kyoto-city and analyzed component of participants of Jizo-bon. As the result, we clarified people (ex. apartment residents) who tend to be unfamiliar with community activities also join in Jizo-bon. This result means that Jizo-bon play a role in the creation of a resilient community in terms of improving the “diversity” of community members which is one of the basic characteristics of resilient communities. In addition, we considered about the reason why Jizo-bon play a rore described as above. We pointed out that Jizo-bon has “flexibility” from view of selectivity of events, number of participants and place corresponded to the situation of each communities. These results suggest that community resources like Jizo-bon which has experienced change in the long time and succeeded as “the core” of community is meaningful in local community management in the era of uncertainty.

The Factors and Subjects of “Indirect Support” for Residents in Emergency Temporary Housing(2015)

前田昌弘 他:仮設住宅居住者への“間接的支援”の成立要因と課題- 東日本大震災における仮設住宅の住環境改善支援に関する実践的研究 -

We have conducted an action research on improvement of residential environment in temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 through the case of Motoyoshi, Kesennuma-city. This paper tried to clarify the factors why we could realize the support for residents of temporary housing although we had only limited resource and weak relationship with local actors or other supporters before the disaster. We analyzed realization process of our support from the view of “indirect support” (support for supporters) and the results are shown as follows. 1. “Indirect support” which doesn’t fix the relationship between supplier and recipient of support is efficient. The support is realized by the relationships which are created among supporters or between supporters and residents after the disasters. 2. Improvement planning of residential environment based on appropriate technology (preparation for hot and cold climate) is important. The planning should be acceptable for not only individual residents but for residents’ community and other supporters.

Building Trust in Support for Temporary Dwelling after Tsunami Disasters(2014)

前田昌弘,石川直人,伊藤俊介 : 津波被災者への居住支援と “信頼構築” の関係に関する研究 -気仙沼市本吉町における実践を通じて-

本研究は仮設住宅での暑さ・寒さ対策等の住環境改善支援の実践の経験をもとに被災者の支援のあり方を探ったものであり、支援者の限られたリソースにも関わらず支援が成立した要因として以下の 2 点を明らかにした。1)支援を提供する側からみた要因:個では解決できない問題への対応を模索する中で、情報共有を基礎として、「間接的支援」を行う関係性が形成された。2)支援を受ける側からみた要因:仮設の住環境および支援をめぐる不確実な状況下での意思決定において他者(支援社/他の居住者)への「信頼」(能力/姿勢にもとづく)が醸成/活用された。

This study explored support method for victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 based on experience of support activity for improvement of housing environment in temporary houses and examined reasons which realized the activity despite of limited resources. 1) Relationships of “support for supporters” was created based on sharing aid information among various support actors in the process of exploring correspondence to problems which cannot be solved by each actors. 2) “Trust” for others (supporters/other residents) are fostered and utilized in the process of decision-making under the uncertain situation.

“Machizukuri Company” for Revitalization of The Old Housing Estate(2013)

前田昌弘 他 : 市街地型住宅団地再生におけるまちづくり会社の導入に関する研究 -堀川団地を対象として-

In order to regenerate a housing complex, it is general situation that the project is driven by private developers. However, in the case of regeneration in urban area, cooperation between regeneration and community management is more important compared with regeneration in suburban area. This paper intends to find possibilities of “Machizukuri company” in regeneration of “Horikawa Housing Complex” which is the oldest RC housing complex with shops and dwellings in Japan. We analyzed discussion in “the Committee of Horikawa Machizukuri Company” which is composed by members from various speciality and background and interviewed the members about their sense of values and possible scheme to realize Machizukuri Company. As a result, we classifi ed “Machizukuri company” to 4 types by the roles (driver or coordinator) and initiatives (private sector driven or citizen driven). We also pointed out the appropriate schemes realizing each of the types by ownership of land and buildings and relationships between Machizukuri Company and administrative, private developers, the residents and citizen.

The Effects of Microcredit on Resettlement after Tsunami Disasters(2011)

前田 昌弘 他 : 再定住地における生活再建とコミュニティ形成に対するマイクロクレジットの効果 – インド洋津波後のスリランカにおける住宅移転をともなう再定住に関する研究 その3-

This paper analyzed effect of Micro Credit in Resettlement Site with research of NGO staff and residents who belong to Micro Credit group. The results are as follows. (1) Micro Credit has economic effect in terms of life reconstruction through loan supply for economic activities in Resettlement Site where economic activities are difficult due to geographical and spatial features of Resettlement Site. (2) Micro Credit has social effect in terms of community formation through Micro Credit activity and re-organization of household relationships in Resettlement Site. NGO staff and residents organized Micro Credit group by using Neighborhood relationship and Blood relationship which were succeeded from previous settlement. And they also created new relationships which are across these existing relationships. (3) These results show possibility of Micro Credit as a method for sustainable residence in resettlement site design after natural disasters.

The Roles of Communities in Resettlement after Tsunami Disasters(2011)

前田昌弘 津波被災者の再定住地への移住と生活再建におけるコミュニティの役割 -スリランカ南部沿岸集落の多様な関係の持続性-

阪神・淡路大震災(1995年)の被災市街地における住宅再建と災害復興公営住宅団地を比較した研究(北後・樋口・室崎2006)においても指摘されているように、住宅復興は通常、被災者の生活再建のし易さから、被災地での住宅再建が望ましいと考えられている。  一方、新潟県中越地震(2006年)では、多くの集落で被災地外への集団移転が実施された。集団移転が本当に妥当であったか議論の余地はあるが、被災地には被害再発の恐れがある集落も多く、集団移転は実施された。  このように、社会状況や地域性によっては被災地外への住宅移転が避けられない場合がある。その場合、移転先の新しい環境に適応する負担が生じ、被災者の生活再建がさらに困難になる恐れがある。こういった住宅移転の問題について、居住地計画的な対策が必要だと考えられるが、実際的な対策に資するような研究は少ない。  住宅移転の問題はわが国に限らず、インド洋津波(2004年)、ハリケーン・カトリーナ(2005年)、四川大地震(2008年)、ハイチ地震(2010年)などにおいても発生しており、災害復興における普遍的な問題であると考えられる。   また、住宅移転の問題は、個人の生活がどうあるべきかという問題に関わるだけではない。現代社会における生活の質は、家族の関係、友人関係、仕事上の関係など様々な関係によって保たれている。コミュニティをこれら様々な関係の複合体と定義するならば、住宅移転の問題は、平常時のコミュニティがどうあるべきか、既存のコミュニティをどのように維持・継承すべきか、というコミュニティのあり方の問題にも深く関わっている。  本稿が対象とするインド洋津波後のスリランカも、同種の問題を抱える地域である。本稿では、再定住地へと移住した津波被災者の生活再建においてコミュニティが果たした役割の分析を通じて、住宅復興におけるコミュニティの維持・継承のあり方について考察したい。