[Translated Paper] The Effects of Microcredit on Resettlement after Tsunami Disasters(2018)

Masahiro Maeda et.al : The effect of micro credit on life restoration and community formation in resettlement households affected by the tsunami

This paper analyzed the effect of micro credits in resettlement sites from the perspectives of the NGO staff and residents who participated in micro credit groups. The results are listed below. (i) Micro credits have economic effects for reconstructing life by providing loans for economic activities in resettlement sites in which economic activities are difficult due to the geographical and spatial features. (ii) Micro credits have social effects on community formations through micro credit activity and reorganizing household relationships in resettlement sites. NGO staff and residents organized micro credit groups through neighborhood and family/relative relationships, which succeeded from a previous settlement. Moreover, they created new relationships in addition to these existing relationships. (iii) These results show that micro credits may be a method for sustainable residence in resettlement sites that arise after natural disasters.

The Roles of Jizou-bon toward Building Resilient Communities(2015)

前田昌弘 他 : 京都市都心部における地蔵盆の運営実態と参加者の多様性 – レジリエントなコミュニティ形成に果たす地蔵盆の役割に関する研究 –

This paper examined actual condition of management of Jizo-bon in the central area of Kyoto-city and analyzed component of participants of Jizo-bon. As the result, we clarified people (ex. apartment residents) who tend to be unfamiliar with community activities also join in Jizo-bon. This result means that Jizo-bon play a role in the creation of a resilient community in terms of improving the “diversity” of community members which is one of the basic characteristics of resilient communities. In addition, we considered about the reason why Jizo-bon play a rore described as above. We pointed out that Jizo-bon has “flexibility” from view of selectivity of events, number of participants and place corresponded to the situation of each communities. These results suggest that community resources like Jizo-bon which has experienced change in the long time and succeeded as “the core” of community is meaningful in local community management in the era of uncertainty.

Building Trust in Support for Temporary Dwelling after Tsunami Disasters(2014)

前田昌弘,石川直人,伊藤俊介 : 津波被災者への居住支援と “信頼構築” の関係に関する研究 -気仙沼市本吉町における実践を通じて-

本研究は仮設住宅での暑さ・寒さ対策等の住環境改善支援の実践の経験をもとに被災者の支援のあり方を探ったものであり、支援者の限られたリソースにも関わらず支援が成立した要因として以下の 2 点を明らかにした。1)支援を提供する側からみた要因:個では解決できない問題への対応を模索する中で、情報共有を基礎として、「間接的支援」を行う関係性が形成された。2)支援を受ける側からみた要因:仮設の住環境および支援をめぐる不確実な状況下での意思決定において他者(支援社/他の居住者)への「信頼」(能力/姿勢にもとづく)が醸成/活用された。

This study explored support method for victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 based on experience of support activity for improvement of housing environment in temporary houses and examined reasons which realized the activity despite of limited resources. 1) Relationships of “support for supporters” was created based on sharing aid information among various support actors in the process of exploring correspondence to problems which cannot be solved by each actors. 2) “Trust” for others (supporters/other residents) are fostered and utilized in the process of decision-making under the uncertain situation.

“Machizukuri Company” for Revitalization of The Old Housing Estate(2013)

前田昌弘 他 : 市街地型住宅団地再生におけるまちづくり会社の導入に関する研究 -堀川団地を対象として-

In order to regenerate a housing complex, it is general situation that the project is driven by private developers. However, in the case of regeneration in urban area, cooperation between regeneration and community management is more important compared with regeneration in suburban area. This paper intends to find possibilities of “Machizukuri company” in regeneration of “Horikawa Housing Complex” which is the oldest RC housing complex with shops and dwellings in Japan. We analyzed discussion in “the Committee of Horikawa Machizukuri Company” which is composed by members from various speciality and background and interviewed the members about their sense of values and possible scheme to realize Machizukuri Company. As a result, we classifi ed “Machizukuri company” to 4 types by the roles (driver or coordinator) and initiatives (private sector driven or citizen driven). We also pointed out the appropriate schemes realizing each of the types by ownership of land and buildings and relationships between Machizukuri Company and administrative, private developers, the residents and citizen.

The Effects of Microcredit on Resettlement after Tsunami Disasters(2011)

前田 昌弘 他 : 再定住地における生活再建とコミュニティ形成に対するマイクロクレジットの効果 – インド洋津波後のスリランカにおける住宅移転をともなう再定住に関する研究 その3-

This paper analyzed effect of Micro Credit in Resettlement Site with research of NGO staff and residents who belong to Micro Credit group. The results are as follows. (1) Micro Credit has economic effect in terms of life reconstruction through loan supply for economic activities in Resettlement Site where economic activities are difficult due to geographical and spatial features of Resettlement Site. (2) Micro Credit has social effect in terms of community formation through Micro Credit activity and re-organization of household relationships in Resettlement Site. NGO staff and residents organized Micro Credit group by using Neighborhood relationship and Blood relationship which were succeeded from previous settlement. And they also created new relationships which are across these existing relationships. (3) These results show possibility of Micro Credit as a method for sustainable residence in resettlement site design after natural disasters.

The Roles of Communities in Resettlement after Tsunami Disasters(2011)

前田昌弘 津波被災者の再定住地への移住と生活再建におけるコミュニティの役割 -スリランカ南部沿岸集落の多様な関係の持続性-

阪神・淡路大震災(1995年)の被災市街地における住宅再建と災害復興公営住宅団地を比較した研究(北後・樋口・室崎2006)においても指摘されているように、住宅復興は通常、被災者の生活再建のし易さから、被災地での住宅再建が望ましいと考えられている。  一方、新潟県中越地震(2006年)では、多くの集落で被災地外への集団移転が実施された。集団移転が本当に妥当であったか議論の余地はあるが、被災地には被害再発の恐れがある集落も多く、集団移転は実施された。  このように、社会状況や地域性によっては被災地外への住宅移転が避けられない場合がある。その場合、移転先の新しい環境に適応する負担が生じ、被災者の生活再建がさらに困難になる恐れがある。こういった住宅移転の問題について、居住地計画的な対策が必要だと考えられるが、実際的な対策に資するような研究は少ない。  住宅移転の問題はわが国に限らず、インド洋津波(2004年)、ハリケーン・カトリーナ(2005年)、四川大地震(2008年)、ハイチ地震(2010年)などにおいても発生しており、災害復興における普遍的な問題であると考えられる。   また、住宅移転の問題は、個人の生活がどうあるべきかという問題に関わるだけではない。現代社会における生活の質は、家族の関係、友人関係、仕事上の関係など様々な関係によって保たれている。コミュニティをこれら様々な関係の複合体と定義するならば、住宅移転の問題は、平常時のコミュニティがどうあるべきか、既存のコミュニティをどのように維持・継承すべきか、というコミュニティのあり方の問題にも深く関わっている。  本稿が対象とするインド洋津波後のスリランカも、同種の問題を抱える地域である。本稿では、再定住地へと移住した津波被災者の生活再建においてコミュニティが果たした役割の分析を通じて、住宅復興におけるコミュニティの維持・継承のあり方について考察したい。